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Adaptive Insights held its annual user group meeting recently. A theme sounded in several keynote sessions was the importance of finance departments playing a more strategic role in their companies. Some participating customers described how they have evolved their planning process from being designed mainly to meet the needs of the finance department into a useful tool for managing the entire business. Their path took them from doing basic financial budgeting to planning focused on improving the company’s performance. This is one of the more important ways in which finance organizations can play a more strategic role in corporate management, an objective that more finance organizations are pursuing. Half of the companies participating in our Office of Finance benchmark research said that their finance organization has undertaken initiatives to enhance its strategic value to the company within the last 18 months.
We believe that presenting its software as an aid to make the planning process more strategically valuable is a product strategy that is essential for the long-term success of planning software vendors. It was a theme in Adaptive Insights’ recent release of its Adaptive Suite and revenue planning software.
Companies do many kinds of planning, not just budgeting. They plan sales, they determine what and how they will produce products or deliver services. They plan the head count they’ll need and how to organize distribution and the supply chain. They also produce a budget, which itself is a financial plan. The planning process involves discussions about objectives and the resources and tactics that people need to achieve them. Our benchmark research finds that dedicated applications are more effective tools for planning than are desktop spreadsheets (which nevertheless are still the most widely used technology for planning). For example, dedicated planning software is more able to get to underlying causes behind variances immediately during a performance review meeting. Users can apply the information that’s in the application when reviewing results and adjusting goals and objectives to reflect changes that have taken place in the business. The research shows that organizations that use dedicated software more often can get to the underlying details of the difference between plans and actual results and therefore are more able to make fast decisions about what to do next. Spreadsheets are inherently less capable of drilling down into underlying details.
Adaptive Insights has a suite of planning, analysis, reporting and consolidation applications that mirror the evolution of the business planning category. I coined the term “integrated business planning” more than a decade ago to describe an approach to planning that brings together financially focused budgeting and forecasting activities with various stand-alone functional planning efforts. The objectives of this approach are to provide senior executives with a comprehensive view of future expectations for their business; to set a baseline for performance measurement; to assess performance relative to these baseline objectives; and to periodically adjust objectives and resources in a coordinated, strategic fashion as conditions evolve. Integrating the business planning activities of the various functional groups within a company is best accomplished by providing a single planning environment in which each group can plan its part of the business the way it prefers, compare its actuals to plan using preferred analytical methods and easily report and communicate results within the group. Each planning process can be loosely coupled in that the cadence, items, measures, dimensions and other planning elements fit the needs of that specific part of the business. At the same time, because all planning takes place in a single environment, it’s easy to bring together the necessary information from each of the individual business unit plans to create a consolidated, forward-looking view of the company. It’s also easy to provide control and consistency across planning units by ensuring, for example, that all plans use the same projected benefits costs, commodity prices, exchange rates and other elements that will affect all parts of the organization. Our benchmark research on next-generation business planning finds that companies that integrate their planning by directly linking plans get better results: Two-thirds that have direct links said they have a planning process that works well or very well compared to 40 percent that copy and paste information and just one-fourth that have little or no connection between plans. Well-executed planning is the best way to get everyone onto the same page to ensure that the company is organized in executing the plan. Setting and to a greater degree changing the company’s course require coordination. It enables understanding of the impact of the policies and actions in one part of the company on the rest of the company. Information technology has the potential to make business planning more useful, and to help improve a company’s performance and increase its competitiveness.
From a financial management standpoint, it’s essential to be able to project pro-forma balance sheets and cash flows. When all operational planning is feeding the core business model, the future state of a company’s balance sheet and cash flow can be more realistic than when it is only loosely connected. Moreover, it’s possible to quickly and accurately compare the impacts of various operating scenarios on the company’s finances, assess the impacts of various financing alternatives and project how different capital market conditions will affect the company’s overall financing costs across multiple operating scenarios. All of this is possible using spreadsheets, but doing so is far more time-consuming (and therefore impractical) and potentially much less accurate.
Another reason why a dedicated planning application a better planning environment than desktop spreadsheets is that it facilitates the separation of planning into things and the financial aspect of those things: a unit-times-rate structure. While financial planning focuses on money, the rest of the business plans mainly in terms of things: units produced, head count at various pay grades, tons of raw materials and production yields, to name just a few. Having the ability to model units and currency amounts separately makes it far easier to measure performance in ways that are meaningful to each part of the business. In its most simplistic form, it helps planners determine immediately and unambiguously whether variance between the plan and actual results was driven by units, a price or cost variance or both.
Our research on enterprise use of spreadsheets shows that companies that use spreadsheets for forecasting, planning and budgeting usually spend much more time in analyzing and reporting results than users of more appropriate tools do. Dedicated software automates this process, enabling finance departments and other functional units to spend less time on repetitive tasks while providing accurate and consistent information to executives and managers. Adaptive Insights recently added to its suite Office Connect, which facilitates creating and updating reports in Microsoft’s Excel, Word and PowerPoint applications, enabling departments to operate more efficiently and speed the availability of performance reports. For example, using the software, standard monthly tables and charts can be instantly updated each month to speed the production of spreadsheets, narrative reports or presentation decks for monthly board meetings.
I have long advocated the use of dedicated planning applications rather than desktop spreadsheets for handling planning processes. The inherent technology limitations of spreadsheets make them a poor choice because they consume time needlessly and prevent organizations from being able to forecast, plan, analyze and replan effectively. Yet spreadsheets remain the leading technology used for planning. Our recent planning research finds that, across 11 different types of business planning, on average seven out of 10 companies use spreadsheets. I recommend that all midsize and large companies consider replacing spreadsheets with a dedicated planning application that provides a unified environment for planning across the entire enterprise. Midsize companies and midsize divisions of large enterprises should consider Adaptive Insights for this role.
Robert Kugel – SVP Research
There’s a long history of companies not paying close enough attention to the contractual elements of acquiring software. Today, this extends into the world of cloud computing. Many companies are choosing to acquire software services through cloud-based providers and increasingly rely on access to cloud-based data, as is shown by our forthcoming benchmark research, in which a large majority of participating companies said that having access to data in the cloud is important or very important. As they say, I’m not a lawyer and I don’t play one on television, so what follows is intended to be nothing more than a conversation starter with legal counsel. But I do advise companies on how to use software to improve their business performance and provide guidance on what software they need to achieve their objectives. From that perspective, let me offer this blanket recommendation: Your company should examine the terms and conditions of its contracts carefully to be certain that it has the ability to control, access and retain its data in single or multitenant cloud-based systems. It should be prepared to add terms and conditions to any software-as-a-service (SaaS) contract to preserve ownership of and access to the data as well as other proprietary elements of that business relationship.
The fact is that choosing a cloud-based option presents a different set of legal issues that purchasers do not face with on-premises software, so it’s important that they consider the terms and conditions of the contract. Some of these issues aren’t completely new – they go back to the days before perpetual contracts and “open systems” were the norm. In that era, a company could find itself hostage to a vendor that shut down the company’s system remotely and prevented it from using the technology to run its business and retrieving its data from the system. Before entering into any SaaS contract or renewal, it’s important to review the details of the contract and its terms and conditions. The company should insist on modifying the wording of the contract if necessary to the satisfaction of both parties. It’s essential to perform this review early on, when vendors are short-listed, not at signing. It’s also important to review and, if necessary, revise the contract before each renewal. Customers have leverage at renewal since the most expensive event in a subscription-based business is losing a customer.
There are many facets to a SaaS contract, including performance, reliability and security as well as data. My focus here is on the last item.
Going into a relationship with a SaaS vendor, it’s essential that the contract specify what data the customer owns, whether that ownership is shared with any other parties, including the SaaS provider, and how the customer can obtain its data from the vendor. A SaaS contract should delineate what data the customer will have the right to take at the time it terminates the contract. This should include its data in the database tables but also might cover data about its specific configuration of the application and data from the database logs that pertains to its use of the system. It also should specify the form and format for that data as well as the timing of when the customer will obtain that data (for example, how many hours or days from when the customer requests it), how often the customer will be provided with data (unlimited requests is preferable) and the charges for such data transfers. Creating a set of extraction reports that harvests all the data from the buyer company’s tables may be adequate, but then again it may not be sufficient. The contract also should address contingencies for change of control (that is, if the vendor is acquired by another company) and bankruptcy.
Having database table data and information about the database structure is useful in the process of moving from one cloud vendor to another. Migrating from one vendor to another almost always involves setting up the successor system before the previous vendor’s contract expires. Also, in the process of finding and selecting a new vendor, a company will find it necessary to provide information about its existing system and the data that’s in it. This should be part of the background information included in a request for proposal (RFP), which should include a section detailing how the implementation service provider will manage the migration. Clarifying this part of the process ought to be a part of the selection process, and getting the details of the migration in writing before selecting a vendor and implementation partner reduces the possibility of encountering a potentially time-consuming and expensive problem. The responses to the RFP can help the buyer craft the contract terms and conditions with the successor vendor and implementation partner.
How often the customer can transfer data from the system vendor’s system is important because it’s likely that a customer will need to do so multiple times. For example, in most cases it will need to extract the data from the current vendor’s system at least once before the contract terminates in order to begin the implementation process for the follow-on system. This will be necessary weeks if not months before the termination date, followed by additional data extracts from the old to the new system. Companies also should consider how to replicate the process of running the incumbent and new systems in parallel during a testing phase. There may be fewer potential “gotchas” in migrating from one cloud to another because there are no system configuration and other infrastructure issues with which to contend, but there still will be many process, business logic and configuration kinks to work through. Even after migration, a company may find it necessary to maintain its instances with the old vendor for legal or audit purposes for several years. Setting the parameters of pricing a decommissioned version in a contract is likely to save money down the road.
There’s also the related issue of data ownership. A contract with a SaaS provider should acknowledge that the customer is the sole owner of its data and lay out the ability of the service provider to access that data with the objective of ensuring that the data can be used only to provide services to the cloud customer. Also, the legal ramifications of connecting a company’s cloud system to other applications or an operational data store should be spelled out.
Data retention and third-party access should also be covered in the contract because during a civil, regulatory or criminal legal proceeding, the customer may be subject to electronic discovery. This involves the exchange of information from electronic systems in electronic format. Data identified as relevant by the attorneys involved in such a process is placed on legal hold, which means that it cannot be deleted or altered. Making this explicit in a SaaS contract may reduce the possibility of legal repercussions if, for example, the vendor inadvertently eliminates or alters data that is covered by a legal hold.
The physical location or locations where the customer company’s data is held, as well as any backup sites, ought to be included in the contract. This is important because of requirements by some countries (for example, the EU Data Protection Directive) that specify where data can or cannot be located and whether data transfers are permitted. The contract also should spell out how the customer company will be notified ahead of time if the locations where its data is stored will change.
It strikes me that we are still in the naïve stage of the cloud software revolution, but it’s time to imagine the worst that can happen. I recommend that SaaS vendor user groups focus on the contractual aspects of their relationship with vendor, especially with respect to their data. They can collectively engage their corporate counsels in crafting a set of desired contract terms and establishing best practices for ongoing access to data and for facilitating migration from that vendor’s environment when customers wish to make the move. They also should focus on how secure their position would be in the event of a corporate bankruptcy and on the change of control provisions (if any) should their vendor be acquired. For their part, I recommend that vendors develop their side of contracts to anticipate having to meet their customers’ demands for open access and control. Just as buyers forced vendors to adopt a more open systems approach two decades ago, SaaS customers are unlikely to want to find their data locked in. Developing a legal framework to handle unfortunate contingencies makes better sense than trying to deal with issues on an ad hoc treadmill.
Robert Kugel – SVP Research